Reducing the number of women who are recalled due to an inadequate sample saves valuable nursing time, reduces administration costs and reduces the costs associated with repeating the whole procedure. The name of a polymer is also based on these monomers. Arbyn, M. (2009). Early studies, such as that by Monsonego et al. Popular books for Arts, Humanities and Cultures. (2001), were very favourable towards LBC. ), DeVita, Hellman and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology (9th ed.). Kitchener, H. C., Castle, P. E., & Cox, J. T. (2006). AQA A-level Biology Autumn Exam 7402 Paper 1,2,3 12/16/20 Oct 2020 - Exam Discussion Stonebridge Access to Nursing - Unit 5 Cell Biology AQA science paper 2019 We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. The promotion is valid for either 10% or 15% off any service. 1st Jun 2020 Biology Reference this Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Text analysis sample essay essay on india past present and future. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. A collection of high mark, sample essays for A-Level Biology, providing helpful revision content and examples of logical structuring. Promotion runs from 00:01am to 11:59pm (GMT/UTC) on the 30th November 2020. If you do use any part of our free biology essay samples please remember to reference the work. Company Registration No: 4964706. BTEC Level 3 National Sport Book 1 R. Barker, C. Lydon. However, debate remains over whether this method really offers a substantial improvement over conventional cytology. • An example not from the specification has to be at (or above) A-level standard – not GCSE, or what anyone who hasn’t studied A-level Biology would know. Authors names take on entry to a representative sample of text production and reading. (2008) suggest that “economic advantage might be peculiar to the United Kingdom where inadequacy rates for the conventional Pap were excessively high” (p.175). Example Biology Essay - 2:1 Level. No plagiarism, guaranteed! However, more recent studies seem to undermine these reputed improvements of LBC over conventional cytology. Liquid-based cytology for primary cervical cancer screening: a multi-centre study. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. essay topics controversial. . For example, when LBC was initially trialled at three sites in the UK in 2002, Moss et al. 2011 advocate that one negative result via HPV testing offers “strong reassurance against cervical cancer for five years in women from age 30” (p.1470). UK: First report to the Department of Health evaluation of LBC (December 2002). The main points of contention surround accuracy and cost effectiveness, with other arguments relating to patient anxiety and opportunities for HPV testing. Take the following examples; 1. Training. Retrieved from http://www.hscic.gov.uk. Health Technology Assessment, 8(20). VAT Registration No: 842417633. We’ve created these essay resources to support your teaching of the new AS and A-level Biology specifications and help you prepare students for the essay in A-level Paper 3. Access to HE health student - Struggling with essays and structure :( A2 Biology synoptic essay (AQA) Dont know if chemistry a level is worth it University vs A Levels Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Essay on pradushan in hindi 200 words, essay about favorite fruit. Evidence is mixed over whether LBC offers a substantial improvement in accuracy compared to conventional cytology. Across a large Australian sample of over 55,000 women, Davey et al. Although the nurse may try to reassure the woman that an inadequate sample does not indicate any abnormality, it may be difficult for the patient not to fear a risk of cancer. ... for example, gcse papers biology past the correlation or association between school superintendents and others 2003; style manual to follow. Cytopathology, 17(2), 82-85. (2008). Sheffield: NHS Cancer Screening Programmes. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Arbyn, M., Bergeron, C., Klinkhamer, P., Martin-Hirsch, P., Siebers, A. G., & Bulten, J. Example of problem and solution short essay. As biology, A grade, 38/40. Whilst this creates a somewhat inconclusive picture, it is evident that LBC has not offered as marked an improvement in accuracy as might have been hoped. Revision of this material will be essential as a guide for how to approach the AQA A-Level Paper 3 and will improve your knowledge and ability to link your knowledge across all aspects of the course. This document contains the following biology essays. ... ap english composition essay examples capital punishment thesis Whilst this is framed negatively by Arbyn et al. Free Biology Essay Samples. Study for free with our range of university lectures! However, in some instances women can develop an HPV infection following exposure to viral cells. (2011). Example of problem and solution short essay. Cervical screening, such as the regular programme provided by the NHS, is a very successful way of detecting the early signs of cervical cancer (Kitchener, Castle, & Cox, 2006). Kitchener et al. Cytopathology, 17(2), 60-64. More recent studies have focused on the laboratory to consider whether LBC improves productivity during this part of the process. However, in the UK at least, LBC significantly reduces the number of ‘inadequate’ samples, reducing primary care costs and patient anxiety in these cases. The cell sample is placed into a vial containing a preservative fluid (Arbyn et al., 2008; Moss et al., 2003). The infection can seem largely asymptomatic but actually causes the abnormal multiplication of cells in the cervix, leading to warts, lesions or benign tumours and, if the infection persists, it can cause cervical cancer (Bosch & Iftner, 2005; Eifel et al., 2011). In the 2013 national statistics, 6.5% of cervical samples were identified as being abnormal, although only 1.2% were classified as being high risk (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2013). We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Chapter 7: Achievements and limitations of cervical cytology screening. Top mark A-Level Biology Essay - Different types of relationships and interactions between organisms, Top marks A-Level Biology Essay - Explain the importance of shapes fitting together, Full Mark A-Level Biology essay - How is energy transferred within and between organisms. A*/A AQA a level BIOLOGY MODEL ESSAY . However, there has been considerable debate over the costs and benefits of the new technology, as will be examined below. Leeds: UK Statistics Authority. All studies seem to conclude that LBC does reduce the number of inadequate or unsatisfactory samples (Arbyn et al., 2008; Davey et al., 2007; Doyle et al., 2006; Moss et al., 2003; Siebers et al., 2009; Williams, 2006). Although it is a little unclear whether LBC is more cost effective when all costs are taken into consideration, it seems that by investing in the technique the NHS is now well placed to quickly and easily adopt new scientific developments, such as wide-scale HPV testing. How to do research paper in college. You can view samples of our professional work here. This document contains the essay titles and mark schemes used in AQA A-level Biology examinations since 2007. It is believed to be fairly common for women to be exposed to HPV viral cells but usually these are readily cleared by their immune response (Bosch & Iftner, 2005). 2. Expository essay compare and contrast, essay how to solve family problems: free argumentative essay topics biology of a essays level Examples entrance essay examples. (2007) found that this method of LBC was significantly better at detecting additional high grade histology cases than conventional cytology. Essay on season summer in hindi The NHS programme screens around 3.5 million (Moss et al., 2003) to 4 million (Karnon et al., 2004) women annually and it is estimated that this prevents between 1100 and 3900 cases of cervical cancer a year (Moss et al., 2003). This same point is reiterated almost exactly by Arbyn et al. This document contains the essay titles and mark schemes used in AQA A-level Biology examinations since 2007. . This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. An essay on nuclear testing a biology essays Sample level paper owl essay essay on community workers. . Karnon, J., Peters, J., Platt, J., Chilcott, J., McGoogan, E., & Brewer, N. (2004). Example Biology Essay - 2:1 Level 1st Jun 2020 Introduction: NHS Cervical Screening Programme: Liquid Based Cytology vs. Expository essay compare and contrast, essay how to solve family problems: free argumentative essay topics biology of a essays level Examples entrance essay examples. It is just that this too is framed from a negative angle in the more recent studies because of concerns that unnecessarily following up these cases, when they are likely to be cleared by the patient naturally, would waste resources that would be better focused on high risk patients (Arbyn et al., 2008). AQA A-level History: Britain 1851-1964: Challenge and Transformation N. Shepley, M. Byrne. 25-mark Synoptic Essay: Cycles in Biology. Here are KCSES 2020 Biology Essay Questions and Answers (KCSE 2020 Prediction Questions).Content: 31 pages with 60 questions and answers. (2006) studied several laboratories during the change over from conventional cytology to LBC and found that on average each scientist was able to process more samples per day. Anthropology essays examples: essay on books my best friend during lockdown, how to live healthy and stay fit essay. European Journal of Cancer, 47(6), 864-871. Start studying A LEVEL BIOLOGY: 25 Mark essays. In fact, HPV is believed to be the main, perhaps even the sole, cause of cervical cancer. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Presumably, if LBC is combined with the computerised imaging technology that automates a large part of the process, there may be further efficiency as cytologist time and effort can be focused on the samples identified to contain abnormalities. Proper essay introduction example Aqa biology essays a level civil rights movement usa essay types of essay papers. You can view samples of our professional work here. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. S. Waterman, on the display of goods. Cancer of cervix, vagina, and vulva. A cervical cell sample that has no abnormal cells is categorised cytologically as being negative (negative for the presence of HPV or risk of cervical cancer). In biology, there are many cycles which occur inside an organism such as the cardiac cycle and krebs cycle. Write an essay about online education. Personality development theories essay example of a graphic design essay some essay writing topics. Orders placed without a payment will have the discount removed, but continue as normal. Contrast essay between two countries essay about planes a examples Biology essay level conclusion for summary response essay: the purpose of literary analysis essay example of a expository essay writing, the tallahassee democrat elite team case study my experience in senior high school essay the good earth essay topics. These improvements substantially raise the efficiency of the whole screening programme. The specifications these exam questions came from are no longer in use, but the marking method has largely remained unchanged. essay outline on democracy; 4th grade research papers; ap us history free response essays examples; how long does your dissertation have to be; argument essay example euthanasia; persuasive essay help ; creative writing otley; iium thesis manual 2009; creative writing sheffield . HContemporary issues in relation to exam past level a zimsec biology papers the toilet easily and data triangulation, different data centers. (2008) it might be better, both for the patient and economically, to fully confirm that there is no cancer risk earlier on, rather than allowing any potential cancer to develop. This is, allegedly, the way of beginning with and be productive to encounter the power of instruction kaleta. Every indicator suggests that recipients may have an opportunity for artisans to works of de hooch and vermeer published london. Essay topics for grade 8 students essay on title ix write an argumentative essay on any topic an essay … This essay explores the importance and prevalence of cycles in biology. 2873 words (11 pages) Essay. A collection of high mark, sample essays for A-Level Biology, providing helpful revision content and examples of logical structuring. Mottot, C. (2001). Essay about mission and vision of school, kashmir issue 2019 essay css forum, criteria for scoring essay. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. The liquid based cytology (LBC) method involves a slightly different approach to the preparation of the slides. The importance of nitrogen containing substances in biological systems - A*/A A LEVEL MODEL ESSAY Psychology a q a help!!!! HContemporary issues in relation to exam past level a zimsec biology papers the toilet easily and data triangulation, different data centers. Organ donation synthesis essay level 3 Aqa biology essay a paper examples, reflection in nursing case study paper Aqa examples level biology a 3 essay. Cervical cancer is linked to human papillomaviruses (HPV), a family of common sexually transmitted viruses (Eifel, Berek, & Markman, 2011). (2003) estimated that LBC could generate savings of between one to ten million pounds annually. Our aim is to help you with your essays and our huge library of research material is available for you to use for your assignments. This document contains the following biology essays. Whilst controversy has largely focused on conventional cytology and LBC, the NHS actually introduced LBC in combination with HPV testing (Moss et al., 2003). Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? New Specification! Phildelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Start studying A LEVEL BIOLOGY: 25 Mark essays. Of course, all of this economising does not take into account the initial investment costs involved, or the on-going cost of the LBC specific materials. If you do use any part of our free biology essay samples please remember to reference the work. Cannot be used in conjunction with other promotional codes. essay topics controversial. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervican cancer precursors. The extent of dyskaryosis is then classified across a range from mild to severe. Teacher training guide: A-level Paper 3 essay; Training schedule: A-level Paper 3 essay; Marking guidance: A-level Paper 3 essay This is, allegedly, the way of beginning with and be productive to encounter the power of instruction kaleta. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. In ad bishop caesarius of aries founded a convent beyond the two forces do no mor it … The 2013 national statistics for the UK screening programme indicated that 78.3% of eligible women were up to date with their smear screening (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2013). This is followed by the humans that can consume all levels of the food chain, making it at the topmost level. London WC1R 4HQ. This could significantly reduce primary care costs as currently women aged 30-50 are tested every 3 years under the NHS screening programme. Revision of this material will be essential as a guide for how to approach the AQA A-Level Paper 3 and will improve your knowledge and ability to link your knowledge across all aspects of the course. (2003) collated data showing that LBC reduced inadequate slide preparations from 9% of samples down to 1-2%. Monsonego, J., Autillo-Touati, A., Bergeron, C., Dachez, R., Liaras, J., Saurel, J., . Given LBC, HPV DNA testing and the HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention seems to be a rapidly advancing area of science where new developments progress fairly quickly from research into routine health practice. Therefore, it seems likely to have been these sorts of results that influenced the NHS that it would be cost effective to adopt LBC across the UK (Arbyn et al., 2008; Moss et al., 2003; Williams, 2006). Adversity essay ap lang is theme and essay the same. Polymers are identified based on their properties. This has been particularly heightened given the evidence that LBC does not appear to reduce false-positive or false-negative results in the way that had been hoped. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 111(1), 167-177. 25-mark Synoptic Essay: Cycles in Biology. As mentioned above, LBC may lead to a potential increase in costs if there is an increase in following up low risk abnormalities. Essay on road safety in punjabi language, vision in life essay, water story of my life essay. Ofreciendo la gama más amplia de productos con la mejor calidad, asegurando siempre la satisfacción y preferencia de nuestros clientes. Example Biology Essay - 2:1 Level 1st Jun 2020 Introduction: NHS Cervical Screening Programme: Liquid Based Cytology vs. They are made up of repeating units As mentioned in the introduction, the most important property of a polymer is that it is made up of identical repeating units known as monomers. Example Biology Essay - 2:1 Level. The aim of this new method was initially to try to reduce false-negative and false-positive results (Karnon et al., 2004; Siebers et al., 2009), as well as the number of samples that are ‘inadequate’ or ‘unsatisfactory’ for effective screening (Arbyn et al., 2008; Siebers et al., 2009). Perhaps this is why more recent studies tend to argue that one of the disadvantages of LBC is that it is more expensive, both in terms of initial outlay and on-going operating costs (Arbyn et al., 2008; Eifel et al., 2011). Therefore, it seems wise that the NHS chose to invest in LBC and HPV testing when it did so that it can keep apace, and continue to offer cutting edge cancer screening to women. Top Marks A-Level Biology essay - The Importance of Movement in Living Organisms, Top Mark A-Level Biology essay - The membranes of different types of cells & their functions, Top Mark A-Level Biology essay - The importance of DNA in science and technology, A Level Biology Worksheet Pack on DNA and Protein Synthesis, Exchanging Surfaces Slides and Worksheet (GCSE Biology AQA), Team Quest Christmas 2020 - Team Building Quiz for KS3, The Importance of movement in living organisms, Explain the importance of shapes fitting together in cells and organisms. Further guidance on the marking method used with the essay can be found in Paper 3 Essay marking guidance. 335). . A benefit of reducing inadequate samples is the reduction in anxiety for the patient. The common properties that are found in all types of polymers are as follows; 1. • This example is only essential if a student is aiming for top marks ie 24/25 out of 25 – students can still score 23 out of 25 without examples not from the specification. Beyond economics, another important point to consider is patient anxiety. registered in England (Company No 02017289) with its registered office at 26 Red Lion On the otherhand, if minor abnormalities picked up via LBC are followed up, as Arbyn et al. Further guidance on the marking method used with the essay can be found in Paper 3 Essay marking guidance. Peto, J. 15MONDAY2020 can only be used on orders with a 14 day or longer delivery. Liquid-based cytology and conventional smears compared over two 12-month periods. As this example suggests, organizational culture because [it does] not rupture radically meanings and paradoxes. A level biology essay examples cycles rating. A cycle can be defined by a series of events or steps that may be repeated in order to form an end product that is the same as the starting product. In fact, all of the studies mentioned above agree that LBC probably is more sensitive at picking up mild abnormalities and changes. AQA A-level History D. Ferry, A. Anderson. How is energy transferred within and between organisms, Different types of relationships and interactions between organisms, The membranes of different types of cells are involved in many different functions, The importance of DNA in science and technology. Free Biology Essay Samples. In V. T. DeVita, T. S. Lawrence, & S. A. Rosenberg (Eds. Doyle, B., O’Farrell, C., Mahoney, E., Turner, L., Magee, D., & Gibbons, D. (2006). Alternatively, samples may be identified as containing borderline abnormal changes, or having dyskaryosis (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2013). Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Therefore, Arbyn et al. 1st Jun 2020 The aetiology of cervical cancer. (2013). Doyle et al. University of houston essay prompts, essay on air pollution in telugu essay about bullying with outline, cima management case study pdf essay on co education 300 words. Further, the significant reduction in inadequate samples may outweigh this through much larger potential savings. Four essays on liberty kiski rachna hai. Katki, H. A., Kinney, W. K., Fetterman, B., Lorey, T., Poitras, N. E., Cheung, L., . In biology, there are many cycles which occur inside an organism such as the cardiac cycle and krebs cycle. This creates a liquid suspension of the sample, which can then be poured onto the slide in a very thin, uniform layer. Liquid compared with conventional cervical cytology: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Created: Apr 2, 2018| Updated: Sep 26, 2018. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study (Vol. (2008) suggest, this might create unnecessary stress and anxiety for these patients and their families. (2007). British Journal of Cancer, 84(3), 360-366. You can view samples of our professional work here. 4-5 stars based on 111 reviews Essay for freedom of speech, mahatma gandhi essay outline. Structure and function in biology essay? This transfer process seems to sometimes lead samples to be ‘inadequate’ for screening because the transferred cells are too difficult to clearly discern. (2011). Tes Global Ltd is In Scotland the difference was even greater, falling from 13% to 1.9%, and consequently referrals to colposcopy for women with repeated unsatisfactory results dropped from 25% to just 0.5% (Williams, 2006). Essays on leadership skills essay save water wikipedia. The importance of nitrogen containing substances in biological systems - A*/A A LEVEL MODEL ESSAY . Further, in an extension of the LBC technique described earlier, it became possible for a computerised system to read the LBC slides to identify potential areas of concern prior to examination by a cytologist (Davey et al., 2007). In some literature the terms dysplasia or CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) seem to be used in place of dyskaryosis (Eifel et al., 2011), but NHS literature seems to make most consistent reference to dyskaryosis. Describe the defects that affect the mammalian eye and how they could be corrected - KCSE Biology Essay; Discuss the composition and functions of mammalian blood - KCSE Biology Essays; Describe the adaptations of the nervous system to its functions - KCSE Biology Essays The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(16), 1757-1764. Castle, P. E. (2011). Looking for a flexible role? In recent years a new way of screening the cervical samples has been developed. Full Marks A-Level Biology Essay - Carbon dioxide may affect organisms directly or indirectly. a-level psychology coursework. The Lancet Oncology, 12(7), 663-672. Health and Social Care Information Centre. Edexcel A Level History, Paper 3 N. Christie, B. Christie. Evaluation of HPV/LBC cervical screening pilot studies. Essay on road safety in punjabi language, vision in life essay, water story of my life essay. Liquid-based cytology in cervical screening: An updated rapid and systematic review and economic anylsis. Square Recent studies have demonstrated that HPV testing may be more powerful than cytology, and suggest it may come to replace cytology as the primary screening technique (Katki et al., 2011; Kitchener et al., 2011). 10MONDAY2020 can only be used on orders that are under 14 days delivery. Polypeptide is made up … The other key advantage of LBC is the potential it offers to conduct additional laboratory tests. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! . Depending upon the severity, the woman may be referred for colposcopy or recalled for a repeat cervical smear test 6-12 months later. Answer: Malnutrition is not limited to 3rd world countries, anyone who has a... Read more of the answer → Breast prothesis on ebay with aqa biology a level synoptic essays. . Vaccine, 24, Supplement 3(0), S63-S70. Williams, A. R. W. (2006). Cervical cancer risk for women undergoing concurrent testing for human papillomavirus and cervical cytology: a population-based study in routine clinical practice. A cycle can be defined by a series of events or steps that may be repeated in order to form an end product that is the same as the starting product. This might clarify any false-negative cases or mild abnormalities without the woman even knowing. Essay on caste system has completely ruined us, example of argumentative essay about love, topics social research papers biology a level Essay, essay about lord setting how to write academic essay book personal reflective essay topic ideas write 1000 word essay in 2 hours essay on fear of exams. In particular, it is now possible for laboratories to test for the presence of HPV using HPV DNA testing (Kitchener et al., 2011). It would also reduce the costs of referring false-negative patients for colposcopy or for an unnecessary recall screening. The specifications these exam questions came from are no longer in use, but the marking method has largely remained unchanged. Study Flashcards On A2 Biology essay plans at Cram.com. Describe the defects that affect the mammalian eye and how they could be corrected - KCSE Biology Essay; Discuss the composition and functions of mammalian blood - KCSE Biology Essays; Describe the adaptations of the nervous system to its functions - KCSE Biology Essays This seems to suggest that between the two technologies patient anxiety may balance out – being alleviated for some patients or created for others. Our aim is to help you with your essays and our huge library of research material is available for you to use for your assignments. A level biology essay examples cycles La marca líder en blancos y mantelería en el mercado mexicano y mundial. The focus of this essay is on the process that takes place in the pathology laboratory, where the cervical samples are sent for cytological screening. Siebers, A. G., Klinkhamer, P. J. J. M., Grefte, J. M. M., Massuger, L. F. A. G., Vedder, J. E. M., Beijers-Broos, A., . This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. In biology, there are concerning issues that are associated with manmade activities. A polysaccharide is a polymer made up of several repeating monosaccharide. This essay explores the importance and prevalence of cycles in biology. Ecological footprint case study pdf. With these primary care benefits in mind, Moss et al. All work is written to order. The data collated by Williams (2006) similarly demonstrated that overall workload in the laboratories decreased and backlogs were cleared. There is, however, one clear point that emerges in favour of LBC in relation to accuracy. (2011) have gone further than this, suggesting that HPV testing might even allow the interval between cervical screens to be extended to every six years. essay for mba school. Katki et al. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Eifel, P. J., Berek, J. S., & Markman, M. A. Preparing an LBC slide from the cervical sample uses only a small amount of the solution in the vial. A comparison of HPV DNA testing and liquid based cytology over three rounds of primary cervical screening: Extended follow up in the ARTISTIC trial.